Sanitation in Rural India: An Analysis of Households’ Latrine Facility

Arjun Kumar


This paper examines Households’ Latrine Facility in rural India using recent datasets from Census of India, National Sample Survey Housing Condition Rounds and other official estimates namely Physical Achievements of IHHL under NBA and Baseline Survey-2012 by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, and Evaluation Study on TSC by the Programme Evaluation Organization, Planning Commission, on the basis of which, it analyses and discusses the discrepancies found among various statistics. There has been improvement overtime, yet there has been rise in the absolute number of deprived households, with notable variations in access among states, and rising disparities among economic and social groups, highlighting exclusion of backward-areas, Poor, Wage Labourers, STs and SCs. The results highlight the need to inclusively accelerate the pace of sanitation coverage in rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community on target basis, with special attention to backward regions and weaker sections (socio-economic), through renewed strategies for enhancement of the quality of life of the people and to attain the vision of Nirmal Bharat by 2022.


Rural India, Sanitation, Individual Household Latrine Facility (IHHL), Total Sanitation Campaign, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, Socio-Economic Groups

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